SPERM RETRIEVAL BY OPERATING METHODS (TESE AND MESA)
Even if the sperm is completely absent in the ejaculate, it can be retrieved directly from the testicles by TESE (testicular extraction of sperm) or from the testicular appendages by MESA (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration). In the process of small surgeries a microscopic piece of tissue containing sperm is extracted.
The obtained sperm is undergoing laboratory preparation for fertilization by the ICSI method. After fertilization, the embryos are cultured and transferred into the uterine cavity, as in the IVF procedure.